The methods of punishment that have been used since the Middle Ages, harming the life or body of the person, left their place to punishments limiting freedom so that the convicted person can be reintegrated into the society after his punishment is over. In accordance with these policies, penitentiary institutions have started to emerge. Turkey has also made improvements on penitentiary institutions until today, starting from the Tanzimat period. Within the scope of this study, the development of penitentiary institutions from the Ottoman Empire to the present day has been examined, and then the personnel system in the institutions has been discussed based on regulations and laws. In line with this information, the human resources development sections included in the Unit Activity Reports prepared by the General Directorate of Prisons and Detention Houses in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016 were subjected to examination. As a result of the examination, the changes in the number of personnel in the central organization and the provincial organization by years were interpreted.